Thomas Phelan first developed Magic strategy in , with the aim of assisting parents to manage the behaviours of their children at home. In this three stages of formula magic methods, when a student misbehave or broke up the rule, the teacher holds up a finger and says this is one, if the student goes on arguing for like five seconds, the teacher holds up two of the fingers and says this is two and if the student goes on quarrelling, then the teacher holds up three of the fingers and says this is three.
Thomas Phelan said, if the student is not behaving as he should, he will bear the consequence, like being sent for time out. Other strategies that was developed by Rick Smith , was to assist educators in concentrating on constructive standards by which the scheme of classroom management centre on deterrence and discipline on intercession. Rick Smith argued that constancy is the major factor in classroom management.
Smith said that, if the teachers set-out correct expectations from the beginning, teachers can engage in a warm classroom atmosphere. The last strategy for classroom management according to Schmidt , which has gained recognition and popularity, is Peer Mediation.
This strategy and programme are popular in courts, public sector and have been of assistance to the schools, to resolves disputes like accidents or divorces. Students get adequate training to assist in mediating issues in the school environment and provide students with proactive systems of managing classrooms and behaviours. Teaching as a profession requires some educational qualifications and passion for teaching.
However, there are some management challenges which teachers face from time to time. Some of these classroom management challenges can be seen as;.
Teaching is a profession that requires advanced education and a love for learning. Teacher requirements vary by state. This workload is designed for assignment, planning lessons, grading assignments, conferencing with students and parents and also meeting obligations by the schools and as result of the workload, stress occur and classroom challenges take place. Lack of fund may be one of the challenges to classroom management, when schools are unable to provide adequate school materials for the students, it could result to some challenges in learning.
When a small amount of budget allocation to school might result to an inability to provide learning tools like multimedia Smart boards, projectors, computers or other devices, it may lead to classroom challenges and management issues.
Also, lack of funds or insufficient budget allocation to schools could lead an inadequate library, lack of appropriate books for the students, limited class size and the number of teachers may affect classroom management. Student behaviour has been specifically implicated as one of the key classroom management issue for many teachers, especially new teachers who lack experience dealing with problem students. Some students have been known to display disruptive and even violent behaviour that makes it impossible for the teacher to manage the classroom.
Teachers must develop classroom rules and consequences and adapt to new students and changing behaviours. Parent behaviour poses a big challenge to teachers. On the other hand, lack of parental support may lead teachers in playing the role of parents. One of the major classroom challenges is poor communication which some of the students faced while communicating with their peers and are unable to convey their messages.
Poor communication and relationship with the teacher can create barriers to effective learning and to be an active student and effective learner in the class, students requires the ability to listen and understand, speak clearly, respond appropriately and express his or her thoughts and issues logically.
All of these play an important role in the overall classroom performance. Special education is teaching students who have special needs using techniques, procedures, adapted equipment and materials suitable to their needs. This is to ensure that their learning needs are catered to, because a standard school curriculum may not do so effectively. Special needs include physical disabilities, mental disabilities, and medical conditions, learning deficits, behavioural disorders and conduct disorders.
It is essential for the teachers to create a learning environment that would encourage social interactions, learning process, and self motivation. This indicates that classroom management cannot be ignored when effective learning or teaching methods are being discussed.
This is why classroom management has been defined in Garrett In considering classroom management strategies as methods of establishing a positive classroom environment, planning and consideration are required for organising a classroom that will sustain constructive student behaviour.
The very efficient teachers will always like to organise the classroom atmosphere in a less possible disruptive behaviours among the students, and enhances student interactions that are desirable on the path to success. In creating effective classroom structure, teachers will ensure that movement in the classroom is easy, less distractions, and teachers can relate with the students well, respond to their queries and exert improved control over their behaviours.
This can cause indiscipline to teachers when some students are being favoured than other students. Other students may also see favouritism as an offense against them which sometimes result to rebellion.
The rules are not enforced: When a student is not punished for an offense committed, such students are more likely to go on to commit more offense. When rules are not clearly communicated to the students by the classroom teachers.
For learning to be more effective, teacher and students relationship is an essential part of learning process. In other words, if there is a breakdown in teacher-students relationship, indiscipline emerges. When the teacher fails to perform his role as a leader, the student or students will be glad to take this role and therefore, indiscipline take place. A situation where students are not being motivated, such students tend to work in an indiscipline manner.
When some group of students formed bad habits from previous teaching experiences and such students formed the habit of coming to school late, it will be hard for them to change these behaviours.
There is the tendency for students to exhibit certain disruptive behaviours if they are bored by the lesson, unattended by the teacher or distracted. According to the observation by Good and Brophy This notion gives credence to the above argument positively.
For instance, learners may make noise in class, shove one another, pass letters under the desks, tease one another, etc. It is therefore important for a teacher to guard against any attempt by the learners to throw the lesson off-course. In an attempt to give more emphasise to this point, Good and Brophy These warnings suggest that a teacher must be prepared for any form of disruption and must be prepared to react accordingly. The best way therefore to guard against this is by planning your classroom activities in advance.
Planning will ensure less disruption and fewer delays. However, it is thought that the idea of class disruptions and interference is not specific to students as the only causal agent; even teachers themselves could at some point be responsible for creating an unsettled classroom that is difficult to control, manage or discipline.
As noted by Arends Good and Brophy and Lasley show that the behavioural standards by referring to major elements for effective and successful classroom management as follows; 1 Preparing classroom involves readiness for classroom activities, materials and resources beforehand. For instance, making sure that the charts, models, seating arrangements and any other teaching resources are in good condition and ready for use.
They must know what kind of behaviours the teacher considers to be acceptable and appropriate. Teacher behaviours are also featured here.
For instance, learners must know that coming to class late would have serious repercussions. In other words, teachers must know which behaviours to reinforce and which behaviours to punish. For instance, teachers need to inform learners that the teasing of other learners will result in suspension from class for the whole day. For instance, the learners must know the system under which the lessons will be conducted, such as raising a hand when attempting to answer questions.
It is not enough to lecture to learners but they must be involved in the lessons that are being conducted by the teacher. Learners have to know that homework left incomplete will be met by serious consequences.
Logical and systematic presentation therefore gives learners the trend that the lesson will follow. A good manager will spot problems in their initial stages. This is a way of ensuring that the lesson does not lose direction and importance. For instance, the teacher must be able to notice that learners are bored by the lesson so that he or she quickly adopts another strategy to enliven the lesson.
The teacher must be able to act immediately each time a potential problem arises. It is therefore important for the teacher to anticipate problems and to deal with them. For example, if a boy teases a girl the teacher must know how to handle a situation of that nature. However, in dealing with problem situations the teacher must be consistent and firm regarding the decision taken. For example, if the teacher has already decided that removing learners from class who make noise in class is appropriate, he or she has to keep to that decision unless it is necessary to change it.
In conclusion, to become an effective teacher, one of the important skills and experience needed is to have classroom management strategies. According to Burden said that, teachers with skills and experience to manage their classrooms, are able to establish enabling environment will learning is the main focus.
Therefore, classroom management is a continuous process that needed patience, adaption and effective planning. Establishing an effective strategy that consists of rules, procedures and routines are more likely to minimise disruption and maximise learning opportunities. As indicated in the literature review, classroom management strategies prevent disruptive behaviours. Ineffective management strategies with disruptive behaviours in the classroom will compel some professional teachers to become burn out and probably leave the teaching profession.
In understanding the principles of classroom management strategies and establishing and implementing a positive classroom management strategy will reduce teacher burn out and improve learning. Students have been found to hold a strong procedural and rule oriented view of mathematics and in many cases leading to non productive path.
While the role of the student is to receive mathematical knowledge, the role of the teacher is to transmit the knowledge and to ascertain that students acquire it. It is important for students to understand that there are alternative strategies and approaches to solving mathematical problems. Different ways of defining concepts and methods of constructions, applying significant aspects of mathematical experience, including formulating their own learning style and testing them.
The idea is to develop their own person method or approach to mathematical tasks in order to build confidence in dealing with mathematical ideas. Additionally and related to these concepts is the idea that students expectations of what a mathematical classroom should look like. It is expected that the teacher should develop some innovative activities to explore the best way in which the teaching environment can be modified to provide students with activities that would not inhibit the learning process.
A number of innovative strategies such as using ICT such as interactive white boards have been used to raise the motivation of students to work at mathematics while some researchers have suggested the use of single sex classrooms, there is no clear cut understanding regarding grouping practices on students.
It is thought that students work harder when they develop a more positive identity and to achieve this, teachers are expected to; Ensure the provision of a caring and supportive classroom climate Ensure the provision of activities which students find challenging and enjoyable Teachers must be able to enable students to gain a deeper understanding of the mathematics Teachers must be able to provide opportunities for students to collaborate Teachers must be able to enable students to feel equally valued and respected.
Teachers must be caring and supportive and make mathematics enjoyable Teachers must be able to make the classroom climate conducive to increasing student effort. Students view about mathematics and mathematics classes is of special interest to the researcher.
It discusses issues concerning the students experience and how mathematics teaching and learning is perceived especially in KS4 mathematics classroom. It is important to hold the view that all students are different and their cognitive approach to mathematics differ significantly from one student to another. Thus acceptance of mathematics would ultimately differ from one student to another.
However, the expectation is that there should be a general acceptance level that echoes the ideas of the teachers and expectations of the curriculum. A review of student behaviour towards mathematics suggests students are not necessarily satisfied with mathematics classroom especially with the curriculum. Where adequate books and supporting materials have been provided for the students, it still remains to be seen how students react to the books.
Some students feel that classes were different. In their view, there was too much group work, reports, investigations; there was more discussion, less work on the blackboard, more work on the notebook. They all agree that the curriculum implied more time, work and thinking. On the other hand, students have divided opinion regarding mathematics classes that are theoretical classes mostly done through writing on the blackboard and practical classes exercises on the notebook.
Some students have been known to prefer one activity and as such are uncomfortable when compelled to sit in the other class. In a practical sense, mathematics is viewed as always doing things and as an exercise, which is a more practical subject. However, there is a huge disagreement concerning the use of computers but the students do not have any disagreement about the use of calculators.
While some students disapprove of mathematics because they consider it as a boring subject, there are others who do not like group work in mathematics. Subject complexity and Difficulty Several research papers have reported students have expressed perceived learning difficulties in understanding mathematics at the KS4 level.
It has also been suggested that the major cause of poor take-up and acceptability is that students do not feel that they are good enough which was reported by Nardi and Steward Matthews and Pepper demonstrated that students perception of mathematics as difficult was created by information gathered from older students and even teachers.
Similarly, Kyriacou and Goulding showed students are influenced by the views held by family and friends and social expectations. Some students were also reported by Matthews and Pepper as suffering from a lack of confidence in the subject. It is thought of as part of a larger problem Hannula , Pietsch et al. Thus, a student who does not develop a positive interest in mathematics at this stage may withdraw mentally and make less effort, which will lead to learning problems and lower achievement.
They further opined that Girls are most likely to form a laid-back view of their lack of ability in mathematics as an integral part of them. In KS4 mathematics classroom, mathematics has been perceived as tedious, with too much individual work and rote learning. This problem has been attributed to a lack of emphasis on engaging and inspiring students. It is for this reason that teachers have attempted to make mathematics simpler by reducing it to simple set of rules but the idea failed to enhance proper understanding of the basic and fundamental concepts.
However, the study carried out by Matthews and Pepper suggested that teaching methods were also implicated as part of the reason why students have problems with understanding mathematics.
Gender Studies into gender disparity in the KS4 mathematics classroom have found that there has been a persistent gender gap in terms of mathematics participation in the classroom especially in England.
According to Kyriacou and Goulding , Boys hold higher academic self-concepts than girls in relation to mathematics, which leads them to be more likely to specialise.
It is thought that female students tend to experience more difficulties and suffer from low confidence and a negative overall view. Boys tend to continue because mathematics is more acceptable and Mendick , the gender differences in participation as due to mathematics being identified with characteristics of masculinity. School Location and Physical Building The importance of the school location and physical building also referred to as the learning environment to a successful academic achievement cannot be overemphasized, the location of the school is seen as a determinant factor in the extent of patronage such school will enjoy.
Similarly, it is thought that an absolutely unattractive physical structure of the school building and its internal environment could de-motivate learners to achieve academically.
Learning Environment An un-conducive atmosphere or learning environment contributes to the poor academic performance of students. Students in the KS4 mathematics classroom could be affected by factors such as an astronomical increase in population. The issue associated to a large population of students in classroom does not create a good condition for learning which can lead to poor learning and perhaps overall academic performance of students.
Further to this, there are factors or causes which have been identified as reasons for poor academic performance among KS4 mathematics students and some of the factors put forward by Asikhia O. A are; Causation resident in the child such as basic cognitive skills, physical and health factors, psycho-emotional factors, lack of interest in school programme Causations resident in the family such as: However, it is also important to understand that without an interesting delivery method, the best planned lesson would have no good, attractive, or admirable qualities at all.
It would lose its usefulness. The significance of classroom management in this perspective cannot be over emphasized but the planning must be researched, structured to account for individual style, rigorously implemented in a teaching and learning situation, and constantly evaluated. Consequently, teachers should understand that they are not an isolated island unto themselves.
The educational policy and philosophy, curriculum guidelines, learning activities, and the uniqueness of the school should not be expunged but must be taken into consideration and viewed as a guiding force behind how the classroom should be managed. Researches in this area are well documented and suggested practices are listed below; establish a positive classroom environment Make the classroom a satisfying, friendly place Appreciate and recognize every individual differences Enforce Learning activities that should be cooperative and supportive Develop and approach to a non-threatening learning environment Organize physical space; eliminate situations that may be dangerous or disruptive Establish classroom rules and procedures and consistently reinforce them.
For example, a star or a sticker is considered a tangible reinforcer. Also, it outlines 7 basic principles for learning how to effectively implement reinforcement. In my classroom, I plan to carefully monitor and evaluate the reinforcers in use and try not to depend on the same one all the time.
Module 3-Using Positive Behavior Interventions In the Classroom and School Module 3 outlines strategies for modeling and differentiating reinforcement. It offers advantages and disadvantages for each strategy. A rule of thumb is given: When you see a student engage in a minor infraction e. Four positive behavior interventions are mentioned as ways to teach students how to behave. This type of intervention produces fun in the classroom.
I feel as long as students are able to have fun then behavior problems are minimized. Module 4-Teaching Students How to Behave: Social Skills Module 4 explains the importance of social skills. Social skills must be taught to students. The module discusses ways to identify the social skills that are missing. It offers two basic systems for measuring the effectiveness. It offers a way to actually design a social skills program.
It discusses skill cards and how to use them in the classroom. The two major ways of identifying deficits are through observation and rating scales. Each tool of measurement offers steps to teach those skills. In my classroom, I plan to use skill cards.
Essay on Effective Classroom Management Words | 8 Pages. manage the classroom. Research shows that effective classroom management and organization during the first few weeks of class are crucial in determining expectations, behavior patterns, and procedures that will set the tone for the rest of the year.
Classroom management is often viewed as a continuous process that requires adequate patience and effective planning and as stated by Larrivee (), ‘classroom .
- Classroom Management Plan Establishing a well-organized plan for classroom management, at the beginning of the year, is essential for a peaceful and calm classroom that is conducive to instruction and learning for students with a variety of academic, social, and behavior needs. A classroom that promotes desired student behavior and facilitates instruction is arranged to encourage communication and interaction. For example, the large tables that seat up to five children promote maximum peer interactions during cooperative learning activities.
Classroom Management Essay La Keesha Logan October 30, EDU Professor Clark Abstract This paper will highlights what I plan on doing as a teacher to run a successful class. It will highlight some on Wong's, Canter's and Glasser’s points. Classroom Management Plan Essay Words | 6 Pages Classroom Management Plan Establishing a well-organized plan for classroom management, at the beginning of the year, is essential for a peaceful and calm classroom that is conducive to instruction and learning for students with a variety of academic, social, and behavior needs.