Here is one fairly short and simple example: A typical number would be somewhere between 20 and 30 years. However in Hong Kong, and China there are plenty of cases where a mortgage runs for 80 years if not longer. This means it carries over a generation!
The second example is about the length of a business plan in years. Or only 3 years? Usually with a rolling forecast. A couple of years ago I heard of a large Japanese producer of photocopiers, that had trimmed down the length of their business plan from ! Again, this spans several generations. My third example is probably the most futuristic. Those little keychain electronic kind of animals! The Tamagotchi was hardly an animal. But what followed was already more resembling a domestic pet.
Nothing like a real animal yet. But what is the deeper business thought here? Sony developed a few years ago a robotic animal that kids age bought well their parents bought the robot. The parents have no affection what so ever with the robot. Hofstede's dimensions offer guidelines for defining culturally acceptable approaches to corporate organizations. As a part of the public domain, Geert Hofstede's work is used by numerous consultancies worldwide.
The six-dimension model is very useful in international marketing because it defines national values not only in business context but in general. Marieke de Mooij has studied the application of Hofstede's findings in the field of global branding , advertising strategy and consumer behavior. As companies try to adapt their products and services to local habits and preferences they have to understand the specificity of their market.
For example, if you want to market cars in a country where the uncertainty avoidance is high, you should emphasize their safety, whereas in other countries you may base your advertisement on the social image they give you.
Cell phone marketing is another interesting example of the application of Hofstede's model for cultural differences: The variety of application of Hofstede's abstract theory is so wide that it has even been translated in the field of web designing in which you have to adapt to national preferences according to cultures' values. Even though Hofstede's model is generally accepted as the most comprehensive framework of national cultures values by those studying business culture, its validity and its limitations have been extensively criticized.
The most cited critique is McSweeney. Hofstede replied to that critique  and Ailon responded. Aside from Hofstede's five cultural dimensions, there are other factors on which culture can be analyzed. There are other levels for assessing culture. These levels are overlooked often because of the nature of the construction of these levels.
There is sampling discrepancy that disqualifies the survey from being authoritative on organizations, or societies, or nations as the interviews involved sales and engineering personnel with few, if any, women and undoubtedly fewer social minorities participating Moussetes, Even if country indices were used to control for wealth, latitude, population size, density and growth, privileged males working as engineers or sales personnel in one of the elite organizations of the world, pioneering one of the first multinational projects in history, cannot be claimed to represent their nations.
Hofstede acknowledges that the cultural dimensions he identified, as culture and values, are theoretical constructions. They are tools meant to be used in practical applications. Generalizations about one country's culture are helpful but they have to be regarded as such, i.
They are group-level dimensions which describe national averages which apply to the population in its entirety. Hofstede's cultural dimensions enable users to distinguish countries but are not about differences between members of societies. They don't necessarily define individuals' personalities.
National scores should never be interpreted as deterministic for individuals. For example, a Japanese person can be very comfortable in changing situations whereas on average, Japanese people have high uncertainty avoidance. There are still exceptions to the rule. Hofstede's theory can be contrasted with its equivalence at individual level: Variations on the typologies of collectivism and individualism have been proposed Triandis, ; Gouveia and Ros, Self-expression and individualism increase with economic growth Inglehart, , independent of any culture, and they are vital in small populations faced with outside competition for resources.
Like the power index, the individualism and collectivism surveys scatter countries according to predictable economic and demographic patterns Triandis, [ full citation needed ] , so they might not really inform us at all about any particular organizational dynamic, nor do they inform about the organizational and individual variations within similar socio-economic circumstances.
Individual aggregate need careful separation from nation aggregate Smith et al. Whereas individuals are the basic subject of psychological analysis Smith, , the socialization of individuals and their interaction with society is a matter to be studied at the level of families, peers, neighborhoods, schools, cities, and nations each with its own statistical imprint of culture Smith, Schwartz controlled his value data with GNP and a social index, leading to his proposal of differentiated individual and nation indices of itemized values Schwartz, ; for cross-cultural comparison.
Within and across countries, individuals are also parts of organizations such as companies. Hofstede acknowledges that "the […] dimensions of national cultures are not relevant for comparing organizations within the same country". From to , Hofstede's institute IRIC Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation  has conducted a separate research project in order to study organizational culture. Including 20 organizational units in two countries Denmark and the Netherlands , six different dimensions of practices, or communities of practice have been identified:.
Managing international organizations involves understanding both national and organizational cultures. Communities of practice across borders are significant for multinationals in order to hold the company together.
Within the occupational level, there is a certain degree of values and convictions that people hold with respect to the national and organizational cultures they are part of.
The culture of management as an occupation has components from national and organizational cultures. This is an important distinction from the organizational level. When describing culture, gender differences are largely not taken into consideration. However, there are certain factors that are useful to analyze in the discussion of cross-cultural communication.
Within each society, men's culture differs greatly from women's culture. Although men and women can often perform the same duties from a technical standpoint, there are often symbols to which each gender has a different response. In situations where one gender responds in an alternative manner to their prescribed roles, the other sex may not even accept their deviant gender role.
The level of reactions experienced by people exposed to foreign cultures can be compared similarly to the reactions of gender behaviors of the opposite sex.
The degree of gender differentiation in a country depends primarily on the culture within that nation and its history. The bipolar model follows typical distinctions made between liberal or socialist political philosophy.
Although liberal economies value assertiveness, autonomy, materialism, aggression, money, competition and rationalism, welfare socialism seeks protection and provision for the weak, greater involvement with the environment, an emphasis on nature and well being, and a strong respect for quality of life and collective responsibilities.
Can this be associated with a low LTO score or is it more to do with uncertainty avoidance dimension? Thank you for your comment. If any dimension has an influence I think it would indeed be Uncertainty Avoidance.
Hi UAI scoring countries would then put a higher value on insurance. But you observe just the opposite. Which in my eyes, has everything to do with the financial status and capabilities of most Zimbabweans. In other words, it is not top of mind because other things take priority currently. The numbers used by Prof. Hofstede are supposed to be a relative scale. Since this is a relative scale it could go below 0 and over In the case of Pakistan being 0 on LTO says nothing in and by itself.
If you compare one country to the other, both get meaning relative comparison. Pakistan scores 0, India While India has many Gods and many books. Thanks for your comment. To some extent you could. What period of time does the average business plan span in the Western world? The answer is anywhere between 1 to 3 years. In high-scoring countries like Japan and Korea, there are companies that take a longer term vision.
There you can find business plans that span a period of decades even.
Video: Long-Term Orientation vs. Short-Term Orientation: Hofstede's Definition & Concept Viewing matters from a long-term or short-term perspective will have a significant impact on strategies and.
Hofstede: Long Term / Short Term. It’s opposite pole, Short Term Orientation, stands for the fostering of virtues related to the past and present, in particular, respect for tradition, preservation of ‘face’ and fulfilling social obligations.”.
Sep 01, · The short-term orientation is also identified with Truth, while the long-term orientation is identified with Virtue. Confucius dealt with Virtue but left the question of Truth open. Confucius dealt with Virtue but left the question of Truth open. *value social order and long-range goals Brief Synopsis Long term orientation fosters virtues that are oriented towards future rewards, perseverance and thrift. Short term orientation fosters virtues of past and present, focuses on respect for tradition and filling social obligations By Cheryl Limer.
short term orientated cultures on a country's growth? Not surprisingly, very often what you may see is that with a short-term oriented cultures they are less willing to open up to other countries. Cultural Dimension series part 5 - Long Term Orientation vs. Short Term Normative Orientation. Cultural Dimension series part 5 - Long Term Orientation vs. Short Term Normative Orientation. About Us. Diversity & Inclusion; Blog Long Term Orientation vs. Short Term Orientation (LTO).