Hyperactive individuals often appear as if they NEED to move. They are in almost constant motion, and frequently make excessive noise. Although impulsivity is not included in the diagnostic label, it is also considered a behavior characteristic of this disorder. When impulsivity is paired with hyperactivity, the person appears to act without prior thought or intention.
Impulsive behaviors are often intrusive, rude, and dangerous, sometimes resulting in accidents. For example, children may not think about landing when they jump off a ledge to catch a ball. Given that all children tend to exhibit some of the behaviors characteristic of ADHD, such as daydreaming, restlessness, or thoughtlessness, it is important to understand the difference between normal behaviors and a true disorder.
Moreover, symptoms must occur in more than one environment. For example, in children, this means that the ADHD symptoms interfere with success in school and relationships with parents, siblings, or peers. For adults, ADHD interferes with both work and family functioning. Experts consider ADHD to be a chronic condition that has no cure. This keeps the brain centres alert and ready for input.
Some evidence shows that in ADHD people, this part of the brain is not working properly. A man named Larry Stein in performed research into the neurophysiological aspect of the brain. He showed that humans experiences are hinged on their past, present and future experiences. This is because the brain stores memories of these experiences.
When this mechanism is working properly, people are organised in time and in their behaviour. This is because people tend to repeat good behaviour if their reward is satisfactory. They avoid bad behaviour because of the possible punishment they will receive.
Also, when this mechanism is working properly, people have the ability to connect their feelings to events, behaviour and objects, therefore, are able to identify with others. However, when this mechanism is not working, problems occur. One day the child, Stefan, insults his music teacher. It is as if a filter is missing between thought and action.
Another problem that occurs when this mechanism is not working properly is the inability to keep focused on any one activity. According to Larry Stein, this is because there is no stored memory, therefore, each event or environmental stimulus is reacted to as if it is new. Thus, the child is unable to concentrate and complete tasks.
Another problem is that the person seeks instant gratification. During the present moment the child does not remember that a reward for their behaviour could be delayed, thus, they seek instant gratification. Also, the child has no expectation of punishment, therefore, tends to repeat the same unacceptable behaviours.
According to the researchers, this then shows that ADHD children do not respond to punishment. Another problem if this mechanism is not working properly is that the person is unable to bond with others. Therefore, they cannot empathise with others, so their behaviour tends to be selfish, bossy and bullying towards others, because they see only themselves at the centre of their existence.
However, it must be pointed out, that most children tend to be like this to some degree, it is only with maturation that a child begins to empathise with others. The problem for an ADHD child is that, even with maturation, this social skill does not seem to improve.
There is an argument against the theory that ADHD is neurologicaly based. For instance, they point out that some parents claim that their ADHD children can pay attention when there is something interesting to do. Also, some parents claim that on a one to one basis their children function very well, and that they only have problems in a group situation.
This shows then, that in some ADHD children, their symptoms are not always in effect. These psychotherapists also claim that ADHD is prevalent among first born children. They do not believe that birth order can be affected by genetics or neurological impairment. Thus, they believe that this is another factor which proves their argument.
These psychotherapists claim that recent studies show that brain chemicals and genes can be changed by experiences.
Therefore, they believe, to alter ADHD symptoms, everyday experiences must alter. Another theory about what causes ADHD is the genetic factor. There is other evidence to prove this. For example a study was performed by a Dr Biederman at Massachusetts General Hospital in in an attempt to prove this theory.
They examined first degree relatives biological parents or siblings. They compared these relatives with ADHD to relatives of children with other mental health disorders. Some people believe that this evidence proves the theory that ADHD is genetic.
However, Debroitner and Hart believe that this is not conclusive evidence. This is because they believe that many behaviours in children are learned from their parents, rather than inherited. However, the theory of learned behaviour does not tie in with other studies done. The studies have shown that children with ADHD often have relatives with one of these other disorders mentioned.
So, if a child learns behaviour from the adults around him, as Debroitner and Hart have suggested, why do children not mimic the symptoms of the adults particular mental disorder rather than display symptoms of ADHD? Another debate surrounding ADHD is how best to treat people with this disorder. They claim that ADHD sufferers are not centred or grounded, thus they have to be shown the skills to be able to centre themselves.
They believe that these sufferers are missing a vital development stage, for whatever reason, of experiencing him or herself as the primary power in his or her life. Therefore, they move through life unable to find their deepest and authentic self. Their aim is to take ADHD sufferers from a negative state into a positive state. Such as being from, all over the place to self-possessed. However, many doctors believe that the best way to treat ADHD sufferers, particularly those with acute symptoms, is with drugs.
There are guidelines for the use of drugs. The improvement of these core symptoms have a beneficial effect on other problems. The core symptoms can improve within 20 minutes of taking the medication, however, the other symptoms can take weeks or even months to improve. However, there are some short term side effects such as lower appetite, sleeping difficulties and sometimes headaches.
These are usually short lived and the benefits appear to outweigh these side effects. There are some feared long term effects from taking these drugs. For example, some experts worry that there could be possible growth retardation.
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RESEARCH PAPER ON ADHD Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral development disorder among children. In the United States there are at least 2 million grade school children that are . Project to Learn About ADHD in Youth (PLAY) The Project to Learn About ADHD in Youth (PLAY) was a population-based research project with the University of South Carolina and the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. It was conducted to shed more light on how many school-age children have ADHD, how the condition develops over time, .
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