In , only 84 out of prefecture-level administrative division of the People's Republic of China PRC , ranking below a province and above a county or higher cities attained the national standard for air quality. Zhong Nanshan , the president of the China Medical Association , warned in that air pollution could become China's biggest health threat.
Sulfur dioxide emission peaked at , after which it began to decline by The adoption by power plants of flue-gas desulfurization technology was likely the main reason for reduced SO 2 emissions. Large-scale use of formaldehyde in make home building products in construction and furniture also contributes to indoor air pollution.
Particulates are formed from both primary and secondary pathways. The emissions from power plants are considerably higher than in other countries, as most Chinese facilities do not employ any flue gas treatment. Environmental Protection Agency, such fine particles can cause asthma, bronchitis, and acute and chronic respiratory symptoms such as shortness of breath and painful breathing, and may also lead to premature death.
According to the World Bank, the Chinese cities with the highest levels of particulate matter in of those studied were Tianjin , Chongqing , and Shenyang. On one micro-blog service, more than a million mostly positive comments were posted in less than 24 hours although some wondered if the standards would be effectively enforced. The US embassy in Beijing regularly posts automated air quality measurements at beijingair on Twitter.
On 18 November , the feed described the PM2. This description was later changed to "beyond index",  a level which recurred in February, October, and December In June , following strongly divergent disclosures of particulate levels between the Observatory and the US Embassy, Chinese authorities asked foreign consulates to stop publishing "inaccurate and unlawful" data.
By January the pollution had worsened with official Beijing data showing an average AQI over and readings of up to at individual recording stations while the US Embassy recorded over on 1 January and by 12 January On 21 October , record smog closed the Harbin Airport along with all schools in the area.
Daily particulate levels of more than 50 times the World Health Organisation recommended daily level were reported in parts of the municipality. In , Beijing's yearly-average PM2. In total, 39 severely polluted days were recorded, 5 fewer compared to In an attempt to reduce air pollution, the Chinese government has made the decision to enforce stricter regulations.
This plan aims to reduce PM2. According to Reuters, in September , the Chinese government published the plan to tackle air pollution problem on its official website. These policies have been taking effect, and in , the average PM2.
On 20 August , ahead of the 70th-anniversary celebrations of the end of World War II , the Beijing government shut down industrial facilities and reduced car emissions in order to achieve a "Parade Blue" sky for the occasion. This action resulted in PM2. The restrictions resulted in an average Beijing PM2. The latest plan  entails closing the outdated capacity of the industrial sectors like iron, steel, aluminum and cement and increasing nuclear capacity and other non-fossil fuel energy.
It also includes an intention to stop approving new thermal power plants and to cut coal consumption in industrial areas. Substituting the share of coal-fired power plant with renewable and nuclear energy also requires GW additional capacity, which cost billion dollars. So the net cost would be billion dollars considering value of saved coal. Beijing launched four-color alert system in It is based on the air quality index AQI , which indicates how clean or polluted the air is.
The Beijing government revised their four-color alert system at the start of , increasing the levels of pollution required to trigger orange and red alerts. The change was introduced to standardize the alert levels across four cities including Tianjin and four cities in Hebei, and perhaps in direct response to the red alerts issues the previous December. With active economic growth and a huge number of citizens, China is considered as the largest developing country in the world.
Due to urbanization, light pollution generalize is an environmental factor that significantly influences the quality and health of wildlife. According to Pengpeng Han et al. Lead poisoning was described in a paper as one of the most common pediatric health problems in China.
A review of existing data suggested that one-third of Chinese children suffer from elevated serum lead levels.
Pollution from metal smelters and a fast-growing battery industry has been responsible for most cases of particularly high lead levels. In , there were riots in the Zhejiang Haijiu Battery Factory from angry parents whose children received permanent neurological damage from lead poisoning. The central government has acknowledged the problem and has taken measures such as suspending battery factory production, but some see the response as inadequate and some local authorities have tried to silence criticisms.
A literature review of academic studies on Chinese children's blood lead levels found that the lead levels declined when comparing the studies published during and periods. Lead levels also showed a declining trend after China banned lead in gasoline in Lead levels were still higher than those in developed nations. Industrial areas had higher levels than suburban areas, which had higher levels than urban areas.
Controlling and preventing lead poisoning was described as a long-term mission. China is a signatory nation of the Stockholm Convention , a treaty to control and phase out major persistent organic pollutants POP. A plan of action for includes objectives such as eliminating the production, import and use of the pesticides covered under the convention, as well as an accounting system for PCB containing equipment.
For , China plans to establish an inventory of POP-contaminated sites and remediation plans. Perfluorinated compounds are associated with altered thyroid function and decreased sperm count in humans. The Yellow dust or Asian dust is a seasonal dust cloud which affects Northeast Asia during late winter and springtime. The dust originates in the deserts of Mongolia , northern China and Kazakhstan where high-speed surface winds and intense dust storms kick up dense clouds of fine, dry soil particles.
These clouds are then carried eastward by prevailing winds and pass over Northern China into Korea and Japan. Desertification has intensified in China.
The increasing number of air pollutants can cause incidences of low visibility for days and acid rain. The policy provided homes and offices with free coal for winter heating, but was limited solely to the Northern region due to budget limitations. The policy led to a dramatic increase in coal consumption and production. Top 30 countries and score . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Extended content EPI Environmental Burden of Disease 2. Indoor Air Pollution 3. Water Quality Index Conservation Risk Index 8. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Critical Habitat Protection Marine Trophic Index Burnt Land Area Emissions per capita Emissions per electricity generated Archived from the original PDF on See Executive Summary, pp.
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